12 Oct

Konstantin Novoselov About Graphene

Nobel Laureate in Physics Konstantin Novoselov believes that graphene, for investigation of which he and Andrew Geim received a prestigious award, will be applied in the production of high-frequency transistors. Graphene is already available for individual entrepreneurs in the UK (the price ranges from 700 to 2300 pounds).

Now everyone is talking about graphene mainly positively: the material has unique physical chemical properties; it is expected it will revolutionise the world of electronics. This is the first known to man two-dimensional material that conducts electricity as well as copper; thus it grants an opportunity to create touch screens, solar sails for space vehicles, flexible electronic devices and many more.

However, the method for producing graphene, which was pioneered by Geim and Novoselov, initially did not find support in the scientific community. They used graphite rods and duct tapes, glued and then sticking to obtain material with a thickness of just one atom. It was believed that the layers of this thickness will be deformed.

Currently, Novoselov is asked one basic question regarding a better solution for the whole world: is graphene really better than its ‘precursor’, silicon, which is already used in the manufacture of transistors? The question of how the new technology will make another step forward to really take advantage of graphene has to be answered yet.

As mentioned, graphene for private engineering purposes is already available. The world’s first supplier of this material is the company Graphene Industries, registered in Manchester, where Geim and Novoselov live and work. Moreover, the industry is entered by ambitious brain tanks – the graphene companies like 2-DTECH provide guidance on how to integrate the neoteric material, thus accelerating the commercialisation process. The company representatives claim that graphene uses are numerous, and even today the innovative businesses can derive considerable benefits from its use.

‘Right now, we are collaborating with the owner of Graphene Industries, Peter Blake, who sells graphene for studies of biological objects in the transmission electron microscopes’, says Novoselov.

Currently, work is underway on the use of graphene in the creation and super-capacious phenomenally quickly-recharged batteries, particularly for electric vehicles, laptops and mobile phones. ‘Well this is a completely new area, and the results achieved so far do not mean that the full potential is used’, says Novoselov.

Even though the author of the revolutionary invention fails to forecast when will the practical application of graphene technology be used massively and worldwide, Novoselov is still quite optimistic. ‘If I was asked a year ago, I probably would have said ‘never’, but the last year was marked by a major breakthrough in the field of mass graphene production, so at the moment I’m much more optimistic about the practical application of this material’.

According to him, a good indicator of possible applications, it was not what people think in the laboratory, but what big companies plan. ‘The plans for the application of graphene by Samsung suggested experiments with further development to the commercial samples of touchscreen-displays back in 2012, however, the progress is not yet appreciable’, Novoselov says.

10 Oct

Sturdy Industrial Fittings: The Role Of Flanges

Fittings is a collective term for all the connective elements, installed in branching points, contractions and bends. These devices allow sealed blocking of traffic flow and, at the same time, simplify the process of assembling and disassembling the pipeline. A fitting may be made of metal or of softer materials; threaded, welded and tube fittings are the most common models, while flanges form a special group.

The article is kindly prepared by butt weld fittings UK manufacturing expert, Alexander Comley, a Birmingham-based firm with long years of successful experience under the belt.

The flange and its use

A true to type flange is a flat rectangular or round plate with holes for bolts throughout the perimeter. The main objective of the flange is ensuring strong and tight connection of pipes; flanges may also be used for connection of shafts and rotating parts. Flanges are produced in different shapes and sizes, though they are always mounted in pairs. To ensure the reliability and tightness of the connection a gasket is installed between the flanges. The shape and type of gasket, which is laid between the flanges depends on the pressure the pipeline is designed to deal with. Flat gaskets are used at a low pressure up to 4 MPa, while metal or asbestos pads are installed to withstand pressure up to 20 MPa. From time to time the seals are needed to be changed.

Flanges manufacturing technologies

Basically, there are three ways to produce steel flanges. In the first case, the flange is produced by hot stamping. A more innovative method of producing stainless steel flanges, practiced at AlexanderComley facilities, is gas cutting. Some flanges are made through bending and welding steel bands. Each method dramatically influences the quality of the final product and the cost of the finished flange respectively. However, much depends on the form needed to be delivered: thus, bespoke flanges of sophisticated forms demand pretty much technological effort to be manufactured; thus, e.g. tube plates production, as claims Birmingham-based firm, one of the most resource-intensive processes. Read More

01 Sep

European Gambling Regulation Aspects Nuances

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The material is prepared by a large gambling reviewing website – DGFEV, a platform finding itself on the crest of a wave and investing wisely in research activities.

To date, gambling establishments are allowed in the 128-countries, and Europe is one of the most gambling-saturated regions. Gambling houses present in virtually all the countries of the union with the exceptions of San Marino, Liechtenstein and the Greek part of Cyprus. European laws, which govern the operation of casinos, are relatively liberal. At the same time, the administration of a gambling house is obliged to independently control their customers. The basic attitude of European countries to the gaming business is to ‘resolve and control’. Europeans have realized that prohibiting such activities is senseless, because gambling generates heaps of money that considerably replenish state budget. In addition, the ban will only lead to an increase in the number of shadow casinos, and a complete lack of knowledge of the state in this sector. Read More

27 Jun

The Importance Of Decent Parking Ventilation Explained

An installed Cyclone ventilator

Covered parking lots, multi-surface and underground parking sites represent the essential features of a modern urban landscape, ensuring the safety of vehicles. But not every car owner is aware about the security threats posed at these undeniably useful facilities.

Taking into account the fact that virtually any parking is primarily a substantial accumulation of cars in a confined space, there are two main points, constituting a menace to people and their vehicles to be noted:

  • The risk of emergence and rapid spread of fire (because each machine features a tank with a non-zero amount of gasoline)
  • the risk of poisoning the owners and passers-by with monoxide from vehicles’ emissions

Therefore, the business plan of indoor (and primarily multilevel) lots should include the availability of sufficiently powerful ventilation and smoke detection mechanisms that can continuously provide the required ventilation. Of course, such internal engineering systems, structures and networks increase the cost of construction and maintenance of the car parking, but ultimately these systems increase the level of fire protection and environmental safety significantly.

In addition, no state supervisory authority responsible for environmental control will permit the exploitation of the facility without a decent installing car park ventilation system up and running, not to mention smoke protection mechanisms. In addition, such facilities should be used in full accordance with the rules of technical operation of the vehicle.

Another fact to underline is that the complexes put into operation decades ago are forced to integrate new parking ventilation systems according to standards adopted in the overwhelming majority of countries worldwide.

26 Jun

The Miraculous Glass Reinforced Concrete

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Glass reinforced concrete is fairly considered to be one of the most versatile building materials that stand in the service of modern architects and designers. The material production technology was developed over thirty years ago and since then glass reinforced concrete  has managed to establish itself as an indispensable tool and made ​​a significant contribution to the economy, technology and aesthetics of the building industry.

The material is comprised of several groups of elements: glass reinforced fiber is a collective term which includes a family of materials designed for a wide variety of purposes. Since its introduction in 1969, GRC has been implanted in global building practices around the globe, and now it is utilised by construction experts in 120+ countries.

In the years since the advent of GRC on the global construction market, the material has fully formed as a finest quality building component, plus the scope of its use has been significantly expanded.

Glass reinforced concrete has already firmly established in Europe (England, France, Germany), the United States, the countries of the Arab East, Japan and South East Asia (just remember the amazing Petronas Towers in Kuala-Lumpur), Australia and New Zealand.

The creation of the next-gen material was largely driven by the desire to improve the traditional concrete by improving its properties and thereby expanding its capabilities.

Admittedly, a major concrete disadvantage lies in its stone nature and low tensile strength. In reinforced concrete the weak point is partially eliminated by enabling metal fittings to deal with pressure. Dispersed reinforcement of concrete with fiberglass has a high tensile strength and significantly increases the strength of concrete stretching and bending.

05 Jun

Lighting Design Principles In A Nutshell

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Creating a smooth, uniform lighting theme with no abrupt transitions from light to shadow can be achieved through installing a number of smaller lights. Playing with tall pillars, combining lighting elements, bollards and built-in lighting fixtures, you can create a dynamic lighting system capable of covering the entire area: from the treetops and roofs of the cottage to the pool or flowerbeds. Street lighting experts are trying to cover all possible genres, offering lamps of country, Empire, Baroque, Art Nouveau and even Victorian street lighting styles. Therefore, the collections of the German, Italian and UK factories are typically represented by myriads of highly-functional lamps, suitable for the most intricate designs. Consider the option of acquiring forged fittings that resonates with lines and shadows and look stunningly beautiful. Just like in fashion industry, lighting design offers its own tendencies and trends virtually each season to complement the most exquisite terrace designs.

Read More

14 Apr

The Process Of Borehole Drilling Explained

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Oil and gas borehole drilling implies using rotational method exclusively, carrying the rock particles to the surface through circulating fluid jet. Depending on the location of the engine the drilling techniques are divided into two major groups: rotor drilling, when the engine is installed on the surface, activating the drill bit at the bottom by rotating the entire drill string and downhole motor drilling that demands using a drill motor or turbine when the engine is located close to the borehole above the drill bit.

In classical geophysics the drilling process includes the following aspects: tripping operations (descending drill pipe with a chisel into the wellbore to the bottom and lifting it with the exhaust bit) and the actual drilling at the bottom of a bit (bit rock failure). These operations are interrupted periodically for installing the casing in the well, designed to protect the borehole from landslides and separation of oil horizons.

Simultaneously the process of drilling is accompanied by a number of auxiliary operations performed; coring, mud logging preparation, well curvature measuring, testing or exploring the site to forecast the thickness of oil levels and etc.

  1. The full well construction project is comprised of the following submissions:
  2. Mounting platforms, drilling and platform development (typically includes infrastructure development).
  3. The process of drilling
  4. Opening and zonal isolation (implementing casing barrages and cementing; the stage that is considered to be the one that indicates the drilling process).
  5. Testing the well for the flow of oil, gas or water.
  6. Dismantling the equipment once the platform is up and running.

Actually, mentioned above are the general stages to underline, as an installation and dismantling may also include minor mending, while the process of testing may be divided into a multitude of stages.

26 Mar

No Win No Fee Excursion Into History

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The British government intend to reform a no win no fee system became obvious when Ken Clarke, UK Justice Minister, made an announcement on March 13, 2011. Initially, it was assumed that the new success fee rules will take effect from October 2012.

Clark suggested that legal fees should not be covered by the losing party, but deducted from the compensation due to the winning party. According to the head of the Ministry of Justice, the plans aimed at making the justice system more balanced and equally fair for all the parties. At the same time the government was in favor of limiting attorneys’ fees to 25% from compensation in contrast to the earlier proposal for 10 percent of the amount. The government’s proposal was supported by parliamentarians, but the authoritative figures expressed concern that the government’s plans can go too far. According to them, the desire to limit the success fee could lead to the lawyers’ dramatically low interest even in the accident claims doomed for success.

A no win, no fee system was introduced in the UK as a result of the reform of the judicial system, held in 1999. It enabled solicitors to operate within the framework of conditional fee arrangement. With the introduction of this system an ‘After the Event’ insurance mechanism was born. These actions contributed to a real revolution: the system has become extremely actively used by both providers and consumers.

Initially, the government believed that the reforms, carried into effect, will make a solid contribution into more accessible legal services. Additionally, such rules should have become a perfect incentive for a lawyer: thus, the center of gravity shifts to an overall success of the case, not on the time spend to achieve positive results.

02 Mar

The Latest Technological Advances in Ultrasonic Cleaning

automated-ultrasonic-cleaning-machines-52947-2639615As almost any prosperous industry, ultrasonic cleaning doesn’t stand still – the engineers are grinding away to integrate new methodologies and approaches into practice. Mentioned below is the list of noteworthy technologies that are not yet integrated on industrial level.

Reduced friction between the surfaces

An imposition of ultrasonic vibrations on the mating surfaces to reduce friction arising between them is an effect that can be used in the assembly of main units in which the parts are assembled with an interference, as well as to reduce scuffing and scratching of the surfaces of the mating parts.

A reduction in friction with the help of ultrasound has been successfully demonstrated in industrial trial installations of fuel rods in the fuel assembly skeleton. The trials show that the friction is reduced by 3-4 times.

Also, for example, an application of ultrasonic vibrations to the walls of the crystallizing dish reduces the friction, having a positive effect on the surface quality of the workpiece, reduces wear of the crystallizing dish surfaces (copper or graphite plates and bushings), plus considerable energy savings are achieved due to load reduction on engine.

Free-flowing materials sealing and compressing

Ultrasound promotes densification of free-flowing materials. This property can be used effectively to seal the powders during their compaction. Due to this, the molded product acquires a more uniform structure and its internal defects (cracks and sink) are eliminated, while the level of hardness is increased.

Metal parts hardening

Metal parts hardening by means of ultrasound, where protrude steel balls with a diameter of 0.4 to 2 mm act as reinforcing elements is another reasonable processing method. An ultrasonic transducer transmits pulses to the balls that make them move randomly within a specific hub and strike the surface of the part subjected to hardening with high frequency.

Metals mixing

The method is utilized for aluminum, cadmium, iron, zinc, bronze, graphite and many other alloys production. For example, mixing aluminum with lead improves the processability of the aluminum molding.

The innovators

Looking for a reliable, innovative partner to cooperate with in ultrasonic cleaning? Contact the guys from Hilsonic – the company that concentrates its effort on brand-new ultrasonic techniques will certainly not leave you indifferent.

02 Mar

The Transport System Of Leeds

A64 LeedsThe greater Leeds is crossed by M1 motorway and a range of highway, including A58, A62, A63, A64, A65. M1 is one of the most important transport arteries of England that connects Leeds with London. A58 leads to Prescott, A62 to Manchester, A63 to Kingston, A64 to Scarborough and A65 to Cumbria. Due to a highly developed road system and a broad variety of hotels in Leeds, the popularity of the city grows among auto tourists exponentially.

In the 60s of the last century an extremely ambitious project of circumferential highway has been implemented in the city. A good part of the road falls to the share of underground tunnels. Thus, in contrast to Birmingham, Leicester and many other cities in England, Leeds has managed to minimize the damage caused to an ancient look and feel by the development of the transport system. Therefore, with a sweeping selection of accommodation options, including totally affordable serviced apartments Leeds offers legions of tourists to plunge into an ancient atmosphere of the city.

Some shopping streets in the central part of Leeds (e.g. Brigat) are closed for vehicles. In early 2006 the free bus route has been launched due to the initiative of city authorities: the form of public transport that exists in many European cities is highly appreciated by the tourists. The trams have been abolished in November 1959; today the city is considering the option of introducing trolleybus routes. The ‘Next generation transport’, held in Leeds in 2009, resulted into a new initiative to reincarnate trolleybus tradition in the city. The city estimates the implementation of a new project at 280 million pounds, while the launch of the new type of public transport is scheduled for the year of 2015. However, a similar initiative has been declined by the government in 2004.